National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, Several of the issues that Congress asked the Commission to address point to potential explanations for rising college costs with the assumption that rising costs result in rising prices. The "cost drivers" that the Commission reviewed can be grouped into six categories:
Abstract This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development ECD programs, and applies it to preliminary data from the PIDI project in Bolivia. To these benefits we need to add benefits to the mother and other family members, to the neighborhood in which the children centers operate, and to society as a whole.
A major objective of ECD programs is to prepare young children for enrollment in primary school. Many of the benefits of ECD therefore are realized "through" improved enrollment and schooling achievements of ECD graduates.
We take advantage of this in our evaluation. Productivity in this regard is very broadly defined to include productivity in the market place as well as home-production. We will quantify the benefits of increased life-time productivity as a result of ECD enrollment.
We will also discuss additional benefits from education, but quantification will prove to be difficult. Not all benefits of ECD programs are education related. There are direct benefits to the child e.
We will try to catalog all benefits but, again, will not always be able to put a dollar value on them. Based on the benefits we can quantify, our preliminary results for Bolivia show that ECD programs that are 1 well-targeted, and 2 have a major impact on school enrollment and achievement, and are excellent investments from an economic point of view.
We will also argue that if one adheres to some modest notion of social justice, ECD programs should be subsidized or be provided free-of-charge for those children who are born and grow up in the most deprived segments of society.
Introduction In recent years, an avalanche of literature has shown the importance of good nutrition, good health, a stimulating environment, and loving care in the early years of life, for the physical, mental and social development of a child. From better school performance to lower criminal behavior, the right combination of health care, adequate food, a pro-learning environment and good parenting, installs qualities, however defined, that result in more productive, more socially adapted, and in a general sense "better" children and adults, compared to when one of these factors is missing.
The links between good nutrition and brain development, even in utero, are well known Martorell, Del Rosso and Marek document the importance of good health and nutrition for cognitive development.
De-worming has had significant effects on school performance Bundy, School feeding programs have not only increased enrollment, but also achievement Pollitt et al.
Pre-school programs have erased the disadvantages that young children experience when they grow up in marginalized neighborhoods, characterized by poverty, hunger and malnutrition, broken-up families, and crime Schweinhart,Haveman and Wolfe, Young provides a useful summary of programs aimed at children in the early years of life that consist of a combination of nutrition, health care and cognitive development components.
Myers provides one of the first comprehensive assessments of such programs for the developing world.
Young gives a state-of-the-art review of the benefits that result from these interventions. It is not surprising that there is general consensus that ECD programs are particularly beneficial for disadvantaged children.
Most of the components that contribute to the proper development of a child are usually present in relatively well-off households. It is also well-known that, generally speaking, ECD programs are expensive. Though cost estimates vary widely see Wilson,the annual cost per child can easily exceed the cost for one year of primary education.
The need to target costly interventions at resource-poor areas or poor households, underscores the importance of providing policy makers with information that will allow them to judge which interventions are most beneficial while still being affordable. After all, in a financially constrained environment, ECD interventions compete for resources with other programs and projects, such as primary education, irrigation works, or feeder roads.
In this paper we will show how benefit-cost analysis can assist in providing that information, help select the "best" ECD program for the situation at hand from the myriad of program options available, and compare the economic benefits of ECD interventions with those from more standard investments.
The key-word is "investment". First, we will argue that ECD programs are investments aimed at improving the future productivity of the child, just as education is thought to do.Dollar General SWOT Dollar General Corp. is a chain of variety stores operating in 35 U.S. states.
The chain operates over 9, stores and its headquarters is located in .
Dollar General History. In October of , former farmers James and Cal Turner opened J.L. Turner and Son with an initial investment of $5, each. This paper has a standard 80 gsm thickness.
It is A4 sized, making it perfect for a wide range of printers, copiers and more. There are 5 reams in this pack, each containing sheets of paper. The assumption among the majority of Americans is that the US dollar as the world’s reserve currency will maintain America’s political, financial and economic hegemony around the world for decades to come.
This paper estimates fossil fuel subsidies and the economic and environmental benefits from reforming them, focusing mostly on a broad notion of subsidies arising when consumer prices are below supply costs plus environmental costs and general consumption taxes.
Q1: Describe Dollar General's business strategy. What has the company been so successful? A1: Dollar General's main business strategy is to focus on being the leading distributors of consumable basics, with 30% of the merchandise at $ or less.