Hippocampus and memory The hippocampus helps humans process and retrieve two kinds of memory, declarative memories and spatial relationships. Declarative memories are those related to facts and events. Examples include learning how to memorize speeches or lines in a play.
How Successful Students Make the Grade Like many students at university, you may be unhappy about the results you attain in exams.
You may feel that even with all you are doing there must be something more -- or different-- you could be doing to get better grades. We stand in awe of those who seem to breeze through without undue effort and seem to need very little in the way of studying to nail an exam.
The reasons for success, in what I think are the vast majority of cases, are less esoteric than many students think: Where difficulties arise Sometimes the difficulties students have with preparing effectively for exams stem from a need to develop fundamental skills such as time management, reading for comprehension, note-taking, and coping with anxiety.
If this is true of you, you might also find it helpful to read "Reading University Level Materials" and "Note-taking at University" to strengthen your essential learning skills.
Some other reasons that students experience difficulties preparing for exams are related to constraints on time, lack of preparation of appropriate kinds, and a misplaced focus on the course material.
In some cases students have difficulty developing an adequate understanding of the Essay on memory retrieval perspectives of the course or the course concepts and applying this understanding of one part of the course to another.
Others try to maintain their old approach to studies and this may involve them choosing to memorize materials when it may be more appropriate to work analytically or interpretively; this in turn may lead to increased anxiety and a chance of "blanking out" in exams.
In sum, the reasons for failure or poor grades can often be traced to the absence or break-down of a productive approach to learning. These kinds of issues are common to many students and can be worked out with a little instruction and application of new strategies to your efforts.
For many students the concept of study brings to mind the mythology of late term cramming efforts and all-nighters.
For the next few days you frantically compile and study your notes until you feel you have a grasp on the information, undertaking intense study sessions only to feel frustrated at your results later on.
The strategy of cramming at the last minute often fails because you have to assimilate and integrate vast quantities of information in too short a period of time. You are likely to feel overwhelmed and overloaded with details and ideas that do not seem connected.
Such feelings will likely contribute to a broader sense of anxiety and dread about the exam. You cannot expect to perform well consistently with this sort of preparation and attitude. When you cram, you do not allow yourself adequate time to integrate ideas, to consolidate information into meaningful patterns, to analyze and criticize the ideas, to reflect on ideas so as to gain a deeper understanding of their connections, to test yourself by recitation and elaborative rehearsal.
Instead, you struggle to hold all the terms and concepts in your memory long enough to make it to the exam room. Some information "spills out" on the way: Under the pressure of the exam, you may find that you forget pertinent details, that you cannot see important connections, and that you cannot adequately analyze and interpret the questions so as to draw on what you do remember.
Less frantic, and usually much more productive, routines can be put in place without great effort for both long term and short term study. The key thing to do is to make reviewing a regular part of your study or homework routine.
A sensible approach to reviewing regularly might entail starting a study session with a quick review of material covered the last time you studied the topic under consideration. Focus on key words and phrases.
Keep this sort of reviewing brief about minutes duration -- think of it as a "warm-up. Check the course description and list of lecture and reading titles on your course syllabus:Cross Cultural Poetics. hosted by Leonard Schwartz.
Image credit: Carlos David. Cross Cultural Poetics is produced in the studios of KAOS-FM at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. Knowledge and Memory: The Real Story* Roger C. Schank Northwestern University Robert P. Abelson Yale University In this essay, we argue that stories about one's experiences, and the experiences of others, are the fundamental constituents of human memory, knowledge, and social communication.
Advances in Consumer Research Volume 19, Pages REMEMBRANCE OF THINGS PAST: MUSIC, AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY, AND EMOTION. Hans Baumgartner, Pennsylvania State University. ABSTRACT - It sometimes happens that a piece of music becomes associated with an event from a person's life so that hearing the piece of music evokes memories of the original experience.
Memory refers to the storage of information that is necessary for the performance of many cognitive tasks. Working, or short-term, memory is the memory one uses, for example, to remember a telephone number after looking it up in a .
The 20th century was nearly into its fourth decade before the first electronic computer came along, and those early machines were behemoths capable of only the .
Robert Epstein. is a senior research psychologist at the American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology in California. He is the author of 15 books, and the former editor-in .