Though The Spirit of Laws is probably the best-known work of Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, his Lettres Persanes Persian Letters is another famous work in which he explores, with perhaps more depth, the notion of equality and egalitarian political rule. A generation later, John Jacques Rousseau would appear on the political landscape and present his own ideas on the same topic.
The Jewish population was then divided into some 3, Sephardim, concentrated mostly in southwestern France, and perhaps 30, Ashkenazim in eastern France. The leading families of the Sephardim engaged in international trade. The Ashkenazim in eastern France were foreign and un-French in their total demeanor.
This community spoke Yiddish and was almost totally obedient to the inherited ways of life. The power of the community over the individual was much larger among the Ashkenazim than among the Sephardim, for rabbinic courts were, in Metz and in Alsace, the court of first jurisdiction for all matters involving Jews.
With the exception of a few rich army purveyors and bankers, Jews in eastern France made their living from petty trade, often in pursuits forbidden to them; by dealing in cattle; and from petty moneylending.
More than any other, this last occupation embroiled the Jews in conflict with the poorest elements in the local population, the peasants. Another economic quarrel involved the Jews in several places in France, and especially in Paris, with the traditional merchant guilds.
In March a royal decree was issued creating new positions in the guilds and making these new posts freely accessible to purchase by foreigners. Jews managed to enter the guilds in a few places in eastern France, and to bid for entry in Bayonne.
These efforts were fought in lawsuits everywhere. The new, Physiocratic insistence on productive labor had also helped sharpen the issue of "productivization" of the Jews in these years before the Revolution. In the intellectual realm the Jews became a visible issue of some consequence in the s and s for a variety of reasons.
The attack of the men of the Enlightenment on biblical religion inevitably involved these thinkers in negative discussion of the ancient Jews and, at least to some degree, of the modern ones. All of the newer spirits agreed that religious fanaticism, whether created by religion or directed against deviant faiths, needed to end.
With an increase in rights and better conditions, the Jews would improve. In July of that year a much more general decree was published which attempted a comprehensive law for the Jews in Alsace.
It was a retrograde act. A few increased opportunities were afforded the rich but no Jew could henceforth contract any marriage without royal permission and the traditional Jewish pursuits in Alsace, the trade in grain, cattle, and moneylending, were surrounded with new restrictions.
The rich were given new scope for banking, large-scale commerce, and the creation of factories in textiles, iron, glass, and pottery. The Jewish leaders in Alsace fought against this decree, and especially against that part of it which ordered a census in preparation of the expulsion of all those who could not prove their legal right to be in the province.
This census was indeed taken and its results were published in Nonetheless, Jews continued to stave off the decree of expulsion until this issue was overtaken by the events of the Revolution. These quarrels and the granting of public rights to Protestants in kept the question of the Jews before the central government in Paris.
Delegations of both the Sephardi and the Ashkenazi communities were lobbying in Paris during these deliberations. The prime concern of the Sephardim was to see to it that no overall legislation for Jews resulted in which their rights would be diminished by making them part of a larger body which included the Ashkenazim.
The representatives of the Jews from eastern France followed their traditional policy of asking for increased economic rights and of defending the authority of the autonomous Jewish community.
The Era of Revolution In the era of the Revolution the Jews did not receive their equality automatically. The issue of Jewish rights was first debated in three sessions, Dec. A month later, in a very difficult session on Jan.
The main argument, made by Talleyrand, was that these Jews were culturally and socially already not alien. The issue of the Ashkenazim remained unresolved.To the question "Why do the terrorists hate us?" Americans could be pardoned for answering, "Why should we care?" The immediate reaction to the murder of 5, innocents is anger, not analysis.
Literature and Terrorism In an age of terror, how does literature help us transcend our reality, lend perspective to our confusion by pulling us into the past and other cultures, and give expression to our anguish and fear through catharsis?
Egalitarian Political Regimes. French Essays â€“ Egalitarian Political Regimes â€“ Explain and Discuss the Fragility of Egalitarian Political Regimes, as Represented in BOTH the Lettres Persanes AND the Contrat Social.
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This example French Political Thought Essay is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need a custom essay or research paper on this topic please use our writing services. Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or lausannecongress2018.com of the s, the use of the term "racism" does not easily fall under a single definition.
The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different.
These are the basic political ideologies that are prevalent in contemporary times. Of course, these are largely simplified, and most people don’t adhere purely to .