Summing up his short but detailed report, he includes the following as propaganda strategies: Incompleteness Inaccuracy Driving the agenda Milking the story maximizing media coverage of a particular issue by the careful use of briefings, leaking pieces of a jigsaw to different outlets, allowing journalists to piece the story together and drive the story up the news agenda, etc. Exploiting that we want to believe the best of ourselves Perception Management in particular by using PR firms Reinforcing existing attitudes Simple, repetitious and emotional phrases e.
During the last 5 years, the number of preadolescents and adolescents using such sites has increased dramatically. Because of their limited capacity for self-regulation and susceptibility to peer pressure, children and adolescents are at some risk as they navigate and experiment with social media.
Nevertheless, some parents may find it difficult to relate to their digitally savvy youngsters online for several reasons. The end result is often a knowledge and technical skill gap between parents and youth, which creates a disconnect in how these parents and youth participate in the online world together.
Social media participation also can offer adolescents deeper benefits that extend into their view of self, community, and the world, including 1 Some schools successfully use blogs as teaching tools, 12 which has the benefit of reinforcing skills in English, written expression, and creativity.
Accessing Health Information Adolescents are finding that they can access online information about their health concerns easily and anonymously. Excellent health resources are increasingly available to youth on a variety of topics of interest to this population, such as sexually transmitted infections, stress reduction, and signs of depression.
Adolescents with chronic illnesses can access Web sites through which they can develop supportive networks of people with similar conditions.
However, because of their young age, adolescents can encounter inaccuracies during these searches and require parental involvement to be sure they are using reliable online resources, interpreting the information correctly, and not becoming overwhelmed by the information they are reading.
Most risks fall into the following categories: Cyberbullying and Online Harassment Cyberbullying is deliberately using digital media to communicate false, embarrassing, or hostile information about another person. It is the most common online risk for all teens and is a peer-to-peer risk.
Current data suggest that online harassment is not as common as offline harassment, 15 and participation in social networking sites does not put most children at risk of online harassment. In many circumstances, however, the sexting incident is not shared beyond a small peer group or a couple and is not found to be distressing at all.
The intensity of the online world is thought to be a factor that may trigger depression in some adolescents. When Internet users visit various Web sites, they can leave behind evidence of which sites they have visited. Indiscriminate Internet activity also can make children and teenagers easier for marketers and fraudsters to target.
Such powerful influences start as soon as children begin to go online and post.
It is important to educate parents, children, and adolescents about this practice so that children can develop into media-literate consumers and understand how advertisements can easily manipulate them.
There are 2 major reasons. Second, the official terms of service for many popular sites now mirror the COPPA regulations and state that 13 years is the minimum age to sign up and have a profile. This is the minimum age to sign on to sites such as Facebook and MySpace. There are many sites for preadolescents and younger children that do not have such an age restriction, such as Disney sites, Club Penguin, and others.
For sites without age stipulations, however, there is room for negotiation, and parents should evaluate the situation via active conversation with their preadolescents and adolescents. In general, if a Web site specifies a minimum age for use in its terms of service, the American Academy of Pediatrics AAP encourages that age to be respected.
Falsifying age has become common practice by some preadolescents and some parents. Parents must be thoughtful about this practice to be sure that they are not sending mixed messages about lying and that online safety is always the main message being emphasized.
Pediatricians can help parents understand that what is happening online is an extension of these underlying issues and that parents can be most helpful if they understand the core issues and have strategies for dealing with them whether they take place online, offline, or, increasingly, both.
Some specific ways in which pediatricians can assist parents include: Advise parents to work on their own participation gap in their homes by becoming better educated about the many technologies their youngsters are using.
Discuss with families the need for a family online-use plan that involves regular family meetings to discuss online topics and checks of privacy settings and online profiles for inappropriate posts.
The emphasis should be on citizenship and healthy behavior and not punitive action, unless truly warranted.
In addition, the AAP encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of digital technology so that they can have a more educated frame of reference for the tools their patients and families are using, which will aid in providing timely anticipatory media guidance as well as diagnosing media-related issues should they arise.
Pediatricians with Web sites or blogs may wish to create a section with resources for parents and children about these issues and may suggest a list of or links to social media sites that are appropriate for the different age groups.
In this way, pediatricians can support the efforts of parents to engage and educate youth to be responsible, sensible, and respectful digital citizens.Supreme Court of Virginia Opinions.
As of February 8, all opinions are Adobe Acrobat PDF documents. The Adobe Acrobat Viewer (free from Adobe) allows you to view and print PDF documents.. City of Alexandria v. State Corporation Commission 08/30/ Considering an appeal from an order of the State Corporation Commission approving a water company’s request for a new .
A major Canadian-led global study has found that a new blood pressure medication is effective in reducing cardiovascular death, with fewer side effects than the current standard of care.
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The conformity demonstrated in Asch experiments is problematic for social comparison theory. Social comparison theory suggests that, when seeking to validate opinions and abilities, people will first turn to direct observation.
SOCIAL MEDIA USE BY TWEENS AND TEENS. Engaging in various forms of social media is a routine activity that research has shown to benefit children and adolescents by enhancing communication, social connection, and even technical skills.
1 Social media sites such as Facebook and MySpace offer multiple daily opportunities for connecting with friends, classmates, and people with shared interests. Supreme Court of Virginia Opinions. As of February 8, all opinions are Adobe Acrobat PDF documents.
The Adobe Acrobat Viewer (free from Adobe) allows you to view and print PDF documents.. Parker v. Carilion Clinic 11/01/ In a suit against a healthcare provider and two employees for allegedly disclosing confidential patient information, a notice of appeal filed within 30 days.