Wesley Edward Arnold MA.
Brief History Mombasa had long been known to Europeans, the Portugese had used it as a trading base for many years. The African tribes in East Africa resented this Arab rule but could do little to resist it.
The Arab control was tied up very much with the ivory and slave trades.
It was this attachment to slavery that brought the area to the attention of the British public. David Livingstone used Zanzibar as a starting point for his explorations of the interior.
He was to be joined by explorers interested in discovering the source of the Nile. They would send reports back to Britain publicising the evils of the East African slave trade.
These would allow powerful lobbies back in Britain to put pressure on the Sultan of Zanzibar to banish slavery in his lands which he reluctantly agreed to in Technically, this ban included the East African coast although the policing of this ban was difficult to say the least.
The British were generally content with their informal control over the area through their influence over the Sultan of Zanzibar. However, in the s they were to find that their influence under the area would be severely challenged by the Germans.
In November three deck passengers disguised as mechanics arrived in East Africa.
This trio was armed with German flags and blank treaty documents. They quietly set about getting local African tribal leaders to agree to the Kaiser being their overlord rather than the Sultan of Zanzibar. These leaders probably assumed that an overlord further away would be less onerous than one on their doorsteps.
They would be wrong on this calculation. Peters kept his secret well. He carried his documents to Berlin where a conference was discussing colonial spheres of influence.
Not even Bismarck had been aware of these developments. This new colony would be called Tanganyika. The Company found that the administration of the colony was far more expensive than they had anticipated. There was some resistance to the British moving into the area, notably when the Kikuyu destroyed Fort Lugard.
The Company also had little in the way of income. The area had been ravaged by intensive slave raiding and trading and there was little obvious income available to the company. By it was clear that the British East Africa Company could not continue as a viable concern and so sold its lands and buildings to the British Government.
With more resources at its disposal, the British government could finance a railway with a view to opening up the highlands to white settlement.
The highlands combined a pleasant climate with good quality land. It was thought that the area would be suitable for a variety of cash crops. The railway was completed by by which time, white settlers had discovered that tea, coffee and tobacco could be grown in the highlands.
However the new farms and plantations would prove to be harder to turn into profitable enterprises than at first realised as diseases and exhaustion of soils took their toll.
On Safari in the s The settlers were partly allowed in a voice in government through the allocation of some of the seats on the Legislative Council. However, the governor still had the right to appoint the majority of the seats on the Council. Kenya was to become an active theatre of war during World War One as the German Tanganyika commander Paul von Lettow Vorbeck fought a highly effective guerilla campaign throughout Eastern and Central Africa for the entire duration of the war.
Many settlers and Africans would be called up to help fight this German force which was to prove to be a serious drain on resources. After the war there were further calls by the British white settler community to convert Kenya into a Crown Colony with more rights for the settlers.
The British government was keen to reduce its expenditures at the end of the First World War and so granted this right in However, it was made clear by the British Government that "Kenya is an African territory and the African natives must be paramount".
The British therefore resisted turning Kenya into a full self-governing colony.As sustainable solutions for all classes of road safety have not been identified, particularly low-traffic rural and remote roads, a hierarchy of control should be applied, similar to classifications used to improve occupational safety and health.
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