Topic outline and working reference list

See Article History Alternative Title: For more than 2, years encyclopaedias have existed as summaries of extant scholarship in forms comprehensible to their readers.

Topic outline and working reference list

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APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

Topic outline and working reference list

For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title.

All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay. Basic Rules All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation. Authors' names are inverted last name first ; give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors.

If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name.

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After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.

Present the journal title in full. Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. When referring to books, chapters, articles, or webpages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.

Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.

While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format.

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align-content Specifies the alignment between the lines inside a flexible container when the items do not use all available space align-items Specifies the alignment for items inside a flexible container.

Creating a Working Outline An outline is a systematic way of organizing your ideas for your paper. Any list can be an informal outline and may work for your purposes. Sometimes you may want to use a formal outline to manage your information as your research expands.

In a Bibliography you list all of the material you have consulted in preparing your essay whether or not you have actually cited the work.

Entries in Works Cited, References, or Bibliography are put in alphabetical order by last names of authors, editors, translators, etc. or by first words of titles.

Topic outline and working references list